Illinois Compiled Statutes
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PROFESSIONS, OCCUPATIONS, AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS225 ILCS 47/1
(225 ILCS 47/) Health Care Worker Self-Referral Act.
(225 ILCS 47/1)
This Act may be cited as the
Health Care Worker Self-Referral Act.
(Source: P.A. 87-1207.)
225 ILCS 47/5
(225 ILCS 47/5)
The General Assembly recognizes that
patient referrals by health care workers for health services
to an entity in which the referring health care worker has an investment
interest may present
a potential conflict of interest. The General Assembly finds that these referral
practices may limit or completely eliminate competitive alternatives in the health care
market. In some instances, these referral practices may expand and improve care
or may make services available which were previously unavailable. They
may also provide
lower cost options to patients or increase competition. Generally,
referral practices are positive occurrences. However, self-referrals may
result in over utilization of health services, increased overall costs
of the health care systems, and may affect the quality of health care.
It is the intent of the General Assembly to provide guidance to health
care workers regarding acceptable patient referrals, to prohibit patient
referrals to entities providing health services in which the referring
health care worker has an investment interest, and to protect the
citizens of Illinois from unnecessary and costly health care expenditures.
Recognizing the need for flexibility to quickly respond to changes in
the delivery of health services, to avoid results beyond the
limitations on self referral provided under this Act and to provide minimal
disruption to the appropriate delivery of health care, the Health Facilities and Services Review Board shall be exclusively and solely authorized to
implement and interpret this Act through adopted rules.
The General Assembly recognizes that changes in delivery of health care has
resulted in various methods by which health care workers practice their
professions. It is not the intent of the General Assembly to limit
appropriate delivery of care, nor force unnecessary changes in the
structures created by workers for the health and convenience of their
(Source: P.A. 96-31, eff. 6-30-09.)
225 ILCS 47/10
(225 ILCS 47/10)
This Act shall apply to referrals for health
services made on or after January 1, 1993. However, if a
health care worker acquired an investment interest before July 1, 1992,
this Act shall not apply to referrals made for health
services before January 1, 1996.
(Source: P.A. 87-1207.)
225 ILCS 47/15
(225 ILCS 47/15)
In this Act:
(a) "Board" means the Health Facilities and Services Review Board.
(b) "Entity" means any individual, partnership, firm, corporation, or
other business that provides health services but does not include an
individual who is a health care worker who provides professional services
to an individual.
(c) "Group practice" means a group of 2 or more health care workers
legally organized as a partnership, professional corporation,
not-for-profit corporation, faculty
practice plan or a similar association in which:
(1) each health care worker who is a member or
employee or an independent contractor of the group provides substantially the full range of services that the health care worker routinely provides, including consultation, diagnosis, or treatment, through the use of office space, facilities, equipment, or personnel of the group;
(2) the services of the health care workers are
provided through the group, and payments received for health services are treated as receipts of the group; and
(3) the overhead expenses and the income from the
practice are distributed by methods previously determined by the group.
(d) "Health care worker" means any individual licensed under the laws of
this State to provide health services, including but not limited to:
dentists licensed under the Illinois Dental Practice Act; dental hygienists
licensed under the Illinois Dental Practice Act; nurses and advanced practice registered
nurses licensed under the Nurse Practice Act;
occupational therapists licensed under
Illinois Occupational Therapy Practice Act; optometrists licensed under the
Illinois Optometric Practice Act of 1987; pharmacists licensed under the
Pharmacy Practice Act; physical therapists licensed under the
Illinois Physical Therapy Act; physicians licensed under the Medical
Practice Act of 1987; physician assistants licensed under the Physician
Assistant Practice Act of 1987; podiatric physicians licensed under the Podiatric
Medical Practice Act of 1987; clinical psychologists licensed under the
Clinical Psychologist Licensing Act; clinical social workers licensed under
the Clinical Social Work and Social Work Practice Act; speech-language
pathologists and audiologists licensed under the Illinois Speech-Language
Pathology and Audiology Practice Act; or hearing instrument
under the Hearing Instrument Consumer Protection Act, or any of
their successor Acts.
(e) "Health services" means health care procedures and services
provided by or through a health care worker.
(f) "Immediate family member" means a health care worker's spouse,
child, child's spouse, or a parent.
(g) "Investment interest" means an equity or debt security issued by an
entity, including, without limitation, shares of stock in a corporation,
units or other interests in a partnership, bonds, debentures, notes, or
other equity interests or debt instruments except that investment interest
for purposes of Section 20 does not include interest in a hospital licensed
under the laws of the State of Illinois.
(h) "Investor" means an individual or entity directly or indirectly
owning a legal or beneficial ownership or investment interest, (such as
through an immediate family member, trust, or another entity related to the investor).
(i) "Office practice" includes the facility or facilities at which a health
care worker, on an ongoing basis, provides or supervises the provision of
professional health services to individuals.
(j) "Referral" means any referral of a patient for health services,
including, without limitation:
(1) The forwarding of a patient by one health care
worker to another health care worker or to an entity outside the health care worker's office practice or group practice that provides health services.
(2) The request or establishment by a health care
worker of a plan of care outside the health care worker's office practice or group practice that includes the provision of any health services.
(Source: P.A. 100-513, eff. 1-1-18
225 ILCS 47/20
(225 ILCS 47/20)
Prohibited referrals and claims for payment.
(a) A health care worker shall not refer a patient for health services
to an entity outside the health care worker's office or group practice in
which the health care worker is an investor, unless the health care worker
directly provides health services within the entity and will be personally
involved with the provision of care to the referred patient.
(b) Pursuant to Board determination that the following exception is
applicable, a health care worker may invest in and refer to an entity,
whether or not the health care worker provides direct services within said
entity, if there is a demonstrated need in the community for the entity and
alternative financing is not available. For purposes of this subsection
(b), "demonstrated need" in the community for the entity may exist if (1)
there is no facility of reasonable quality that provides medically
appropriate service, (2) use of existing facilities is onerous or creates
too great a hardship for patients,
(3) the entity is formed to own or lease medical equipment which replaces
obsolete or otherwise inadequate equipment in or under the control of a
hospital located in a federally designated health manpower shortage area,
or (4) such other standards as
established, by rule, by the Board. "Community" shall be defined as a
metropolitan area for a city, and a county for a rural area. In addition,
the following provisions must be met to be exempt under this Section:
(1) Individuals who are not in a position to refer
patients to an entity are given a bona fide opportunity to also invest in the entity on the same terms as those offered a referring health care worker; and
(2) No health care worker who invests shall be
required or encouraged to make referrals to the entity or otherwise generate business as a condition of becoming or remaining an investor; and
(3) The entity shall market or furnish its services
to referring health care worker investors and other investors on equal terms; and
(4) The entity shall not loan funds or guarantee any
loans for health care workers who are in a position to refer to an entity; and
(5) The income on the health care worker's investment
shall be tied to the health care worker's equity in the facility rather than to the volume of referrals made; and
(6) Any investment contract between the entity and
the health care worker shall not include any covenant or non-competition clause that prevents a health care worker from investing in other entities; and
(7) When making a referral, a health care worker must
disclose his investment interest in an entity to the patient being referred to such entity. If alternative facilities are reasonably available, the health care worker must provide the patient with a list of alternative facilities. The health care worker shall inform the patient that they have the option to use an alternative facility other than one in which the health care worker has an investment interest and the patient will not be treated differently by the health care worker if the patient chooses to use another entity. This shall be applicable to all health care worker investors, including those who provide direct care or services for their patients in entities outside their office practices; and
(8) If a third party payor requests information with
regard to a health care worker's investment interest, the same shall be disclosed; and
(9) The entity shall establish an internal
utilization review program to ensure that investing health care workers provided appropriate or necessary utilization; and
(10) If a health care worker's financial interest in
an entity is incompatible with a referred patient's interest, the health care worker shall make alternative arrangements for the patient's care.
The Board shall make such a determination for a health care worker within
90 days of a completed written request. Failure to make such a
determination within the 90 day time frame shall mean that no alternative
is practical based upon the facts set forth in the completed written request.
(c) It shall not be a violation of this Act for a health care worker to
refer a patient for health services to a publicly traded entity in which he or
has an investment interest provided that:
(1) the entity is listed for trading on the New York
Stock Exchange or on the American Stock Exchange, or is a national market system security traded under an automated inter-dealer quotation system operated by the National Association of Securities Dealers; and
(2) the entity had, at the end of the corporation's
most recent fiscal year, total net assets of at least $30,000,000 related to the furnishing of health services; and
(3) any investment interest obtained after the
effective date of this Act is traded on the exchanges listed in paragraph 1 of subsection (c) of this Section after the entity became a publicly traded corporation; and
(4) the entity markets or furnishes its services to
referring health care worker investors and other health care workers on equal terms; and
(5) all stock held in such publicly traded companies,
including stock held in the predecessor privately held company, shall be of one class without preferential treatment as to status or remuneration; and
(6) the entity does not loan funds or guarantee any
loans for health care workers who are in a position to be referred to an entity; and
(7) the income on the health care worker's investment
is tied to the health care worker's equity in the entity rather than to the volume of referrals made; and
(8) the investment interest does not exceed 1/2 of 1%
of the entity's total equity.
(d) Any hospital licensed under the Hospital Licensing Act shall not
discriminate against or otherwise penalize a health care worker for
compliance with this Act.
(e) Any health care worker or other entity shall not enter into an
arrangement or scheme seeking to make referrals to another health care
worker or entity based upon the condition that the health care worker
or entity will make referrals with an intent to evade the prohibitions of
this Act by inducing patient referrals which would be prohibited by this Section
if the health care worker or entity made the referral directly.
(f) If compliance with the need and alternative investor criteria is not
practical, the health care worker shall identify to the patient reasonably
available alternative facilities. The Board shall, by rule, designate when
compliance is "not practical".
(g) Health care workers may request from the Board that it render an
advisory opinion that a referral to an existing or proposed entity under
specified circumstances does or does not violate the provisions of this
Act. The Board's opinion shall be presumptively correct. Failure to
render such an advisory opinion within 90 days of a completed written
request pursuant to this Section shall create a rebuttable presumption that a
referral described in the completed written request is not or will not be a
violation of this Act.
(h) Notwithstanding any provision of this Act to the contrary, a health
care worker may refer
a patient, who is a member of a health maintenance organization "HMO"
licensed in this State, for health services to an entity, outside the
health care worker's office or group practice, in which the health care
worker is an investor, provided that any such referral is made pursuant to
a contract with the HMO.
Furthermore, notwithstanding any provision of this Act to the contrary, a
health care worker may refer an enrollee of a "managed care community network",
as defined in subsection (b) of Section 5-11 of the Illinois
Aid Code, for health
services to an entity, outside the health care worker's office or group
practice, in which the health care worker is an investor, provided that any
such referral is made pursuant to a contract with the managed care community
(Source: P.A. 92-370, eff. 8-15-01.)
225 ILCS 47/25
(225 ILCS 47/25)
(a) Any entity, other than a health care worker, that makes or causes to
be made a referral prohibited under Section 20 of this Act or presents or
causes to be presented a bill or claim for service that the entity knows or
should know is prohibited by Section 20 of this Act, shall be subject to
a civil penalty of no more than $20,000 for each referral, bill, or claim.
(b) Any violation of this Act by a health care worker shall constitute
grounds for disciplinary action by the applicable board or committee.
(Source: P.A. 87-1207.)
225 ILCS 47/30
(225 ILCS 47/30)
The Health Facilities and Services Review Board
shall exclusively and solely implement the provisions of this Act pursuant
to rules adopted in accordance with the Illinois Administrative Procedure
Act concerning, but not limited to:
(a) Standards and procedures for the administration of this Act.
(b) Procedures and criteria for exceptions from the prohibitions set
forth in Section 20.
(c) Procedures and criteria for determining practical compliance with
the needs and alternative investor criteria in Section 20.
(d) Procedures and criteria for determining when a written request for
an opinion set forth in Section 20 is complete.
(e) Procedures and criteria for advising health care workers of the
applicability of this Act to practices pursuant to written requests.
(Source: P.A. 96-31, eff. 6-30-09.)
225 ILCS 47/35
(225 ILCS 47/35)
Administrative Procedure Act; application.
Administrative Procedure Act is hereby
expressly adopted and incorporated herein and shall apply to the Board as
if all of the provisions of such Act were included in this Act; except that
in case of a conflict between the Illinois Administrative Procedure Act and this Act
the provisions of this Act shall control.
(Source: P.A. 87-1207.)
225 ILCS 47/40
(225 ILCS 47/40)
Review under Administrative Review Law.
Any person who is
adversely affected by a final decision of the Board may have such decision
judicially reviewed. The provisions of the Administrative Review Law
and the rules adopted pursuant thereto shall apply
to and govern all proceedings for the judicial review of final
administrative decisions of the Board. The term "administrative decisions" is
as defined in Section 3-101 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
(Source: P.A. 87-1207.)
225 ILCS 47/50
(225 ILCS 47/50)
Statutorily required referrals.
(a) With respect to statutorily required referrals for physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, athletic trainer services, or genetic counselor services, a patient shall be informed that he or she may request a referral for these services outside or independent of the authorized referring health care worker's group practice, facility, or health professional's or provider's office (hereinafter "practice"). This notice to the patient may take the following or a similar form:
For your information, the health care professionals
in this practice (or legal entity) are financially integrated. If you are referred to a health care professional in this practice for physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, athletic trainer services, or genetic counselor services, please note that you may request and receive a referral for these services outside or independent of this practice.
(b) For the purposes of this Section, "referral" means the authority required by Illinois law for a physical therapist, occupational therapist, athletic trainer, or genetic counselor to provide services to a patient.
(Source: P.A. 96-1482, eff. 11-29-10.)
225 ILCS 47/55
(225 ILCS 47/55)
Application of the Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Business
A violation of any of the provisions of this Act constitutes an unlawful practice under the Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Business Practices Act. All remedies, penalties, and authority granted to the Attorney General or State's Attorney by the Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Business Practices Act shall be available to him or her for the enforcement of this Act. This Section does not apply to hospitals and hospital affiliates licensed in Illinois.
(Source: P.A. 100-1058, eff. 1-1-19
225 ILCS 47/160
(225 ILCS 47/160)
This Act takes effect January 1, 1993.
(Source: P.A. 87-1207.)